Search for Resources

What Can I Contribute to Meaningful Reconciliation?

Teaching and Learning about Residential Schools

Secondary, Middle

Description

What Can I Contribute to Meaningful Reconciliation? is a thorough resource that explores the causes and consequences of residential schools in Canada. The overarching question the resource attempts to answer is "What might meaningful reconciliation look like?" by considering The Truth and Reconciliation Commission's Calls to Action #62 and #63 as a platform for the activities.  The resource not only teaches history but engages learners in critical thinking to create an understanding of what led Canada to this point and the steps to take to intentionally plan where we must go for proper reconciliation.

Throughout the three lines of inquiry, the students co-construct criteria, consider alternatives points of view and reflect upon their learning. They will represent abstract concepts, analyze images, read stories, listen to the stories of survivors, create a journey map, etc.

  • In line of inquiry #1 the overarching question is "What is the relationship between Canada and populations affected by the residential schools?"
  • In line of inquiry #2 the overarching question is " What important lessons from past actions can help us contribute to meaningful reconciliation?".
  • In line of inquiry #3 the overarching questions is " How might we contribute to meaningful reconciliation?".
The opening lesson sets the stage for the entire unit. To begin, students co-develop the criteria for a powerful representation by examining audio, video, writing, and art representations of concepts such as friendship, respect, and cooperation. Guided by the criteria, students then suggest what meaningful reconciliation might look, sound, and feel like.

General Assessment

What skills does this resource explicitly teach?

This resource explicitly teaches the students to think critically.

Strengths

  • Timely resource for a current Canadian issue
  • Good quantity and quality of information for the teacher in order to respect the topic and present the material in an informed manner
  • All materials are included

Recommendation of how and where to use it

This resource would be best suited for older students from middle school to high school in order to address the topic of social justice in relation to residential schools. It is a lengthy resource with a lot of material that could easily take a significant amount of time to cover properly but also allows teachers the flexibility to complete the activities suitable to their students.

Relevant Curriculum Units

The following tool will allow you to explore the relevant curriculum matches for this resource. To start, select a province listed below.

  • Step 1Select a province
  • Alberta
  • British Columbia
    • Step 2Select a grade level
    • Grade 6
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Global Issues and Governance: Systems of government vary in their respect for human rights and freedoms.
    • Grade 9
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • 1750 to 1919: Disparities in power alter the balance of relationships between individuals and between societies.
    • Grade 10
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Social Studies 10 -Canada and the World: 1914 to the Present: Historical and contemporary injustices challenge the narrative and identity of Canada as an inclusive, multicultural society
    • Grade 11
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Explorations in Social Studies 11: Indigenous peoples are reclaiming mental, emotional, physical, and spiritual well-being despite the continuing effects of colonialism
        • Explorations in Social Studies 11: Social justice initiatives can transform individuals and systems
    • Grade 12
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • 20th Century World History: The breakdown of long-standing empires created new economic and political systems.
        • Contemporary Indigenous Studies: Indigenous peoples are reclaiming mental, emotional, physical, and spiritual well-being despite the continuing effects of colonialism
        • Contemporary Indigenous Studies: Reconciliation requires all colonial societies to work together to foster healing and address injustices
        • Social Justice: Individual worldviews shape and inform our understanding of social justice issues.
        • Social Justice: Social justice initiatives can transform individuals and systems
        • Social Justice: Social justice issues are interconnected.
        • Social Justice: The causes of social injustice are complex and have lasting impacts on society
  • Manitoba
    • Step 2Select a grade level
    • Grade 6
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Aboriginal Languages and Cultures
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: Cultural Diversity
        • Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: Other Cultures: Connections and Influences
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Canada - A Country of Change (1867 to Present):Canada Today: Democracy, Diversity and the Influence of the Past
    • Grade 7
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Aboriginal Languages and Cultures
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: Cultural Diversity
        • Cultural and Linguistic Diversity::Other Cultures: Connections and Influences
    • Grade 8
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Aboriginal Languages and Cultures
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: Cultural Diversity
        • Cultural and Linguistic Diversity::Other Cultures: Connections and Influences
    • Grade 9
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Aboriginal Languages and Cultures
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: Cultural Diversity
        • Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: Other Cultures: Connections and Influences
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Canada in the Contempoary World: Democracy and Governance in Canada
        • Canada in the Contemporary World: Opportunities and Challenges
    • Grade 10
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Aboriginal Languages and Cultures
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: Cultural Diversity
        • Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: Other Cultures: Connections and Influences
    • Grade 11
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Aboriginal Languages and Cultures
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: Cultural Diversity
        • Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: Specific Aboriginal Culture
    • Grade 12
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Aboriginal Languages and Cultures
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: Cultural Diversity
        • Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: Other Cultures: Connections and Influences
        • Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: Specific Aboriginal Culture
      • Aboriginal Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Current Topics in First Nations, Métis and Inuit Studies: A Festival of Learning
        • Current Topics in First Nations, Métis and Inuit Studies: Image and Identity
        • Current Topics in First Nations, Métis and Inuit Studies: Towards a Just Society
  • New Brunswick
    • Step 2Select a grade level
    • Grade 7
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Empowerment: Cultural Empowerment
    • Grade 8
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Atlantic Canada in the Global Community: Culture
    • Grade 9
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Canadian Identities: Social Responsibility
    • Grade 12
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Aboriginal Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Indigenous Studies 120: Indigenous Advocacy
        • Indigenous Studies 120: Relationship of Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples
  • Newfoundland & Labrador
    • Step 2Select a grade level
    • Grade 7
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Cultural Empowerment
    • Grade 8
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Newfoundland & Labrador History: History as a Story of the Past in the Present
    • Grade 9
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Canadian Identity: Canada’s Changing Identity : Creating a Preferred Future
  • Northwest Territories
    • Step 2Select a grade level
    • Grade 8
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • The Changing World: Modern Societies
    • Grade 10
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Module 2: Residential Schools
        • Northern Studies
        • Northern Studies 10: Module 4: Living Together
  • Nova Scotia
    • Step 2Select a grade level
    • Grade 7
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Cultural Empowerment
        • Social Studies 7 - Many Cultures: One Shared History: Government Policies and the Mi'kma'ki
        • Social Studies 7 - Many Cultures: One Shared History: Opportunities and Challenges
    • Grade 8
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Aboriginal Languages and Cultures
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Mi’kmaw Language 8: Mi’kmaw Consciouness and Identity
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Social Studies 8 - A Changing Canadian Society: Indigenous Experience
        • Social Studies 8 - A Changing Canadian Society: Societal Change
    • Grade 10
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Aboriginal Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Mi'Kmaq Studies: Governance
        • Mi’Kmaq Studies: Justice
    • Grade 11
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Aboriginal Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Mi'kmaw Studies 11: Education
  • Nunavut
  • Ontario
    • Step 2Select a grade level
    • Grade 6
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Heritage and Identity: Communities in Canada, Past and Present
    • Grade 9
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Aboriginal Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Expressions of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Cultures (Open): Artistic Expressions and First Nations, Metis and Inuit World Views
    • Grade 10
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Aboriginal Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • First Nations, Métis, and Inuit in Canada (Open): 1876 - 1969: Assimilation, Encroachment, and Life in the Industrial Age
        • First Nations, Métis, and Inuit in Canada (Open): 1969 to the Present, Resilience, Determination, and Reconciliation
    • Grade 11
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Equity, Diversity, and Social Justice (Workplace Pre.) Equity, Social Justice, and Change
        • Equity, Diversity, and Social Justice (Workplace Pre.) Foundations
  • Prince Edward Island
    • Step 2Select a grade level
    • Grade 7
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Cultural Empowerment
    • Grade 8
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Canadian Identity: Citizenship
    • Grade 9
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Interdependence: Atlantic Canada in the Global Community: Human Rights in the Global Community
  • Saskatchewan
    • Step 2Select a grade level
    • Grade 8
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • The Individual in Canadian Society: Dynamic Relationships
    • Grade 10
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Aboriginal Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Native Studies 10: Community and Kinship: Aboriginal Perspectives
    • Grade 12
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Aboriginal Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Native Studies 30: Social Development
  • Yukon Territory
    • Step 2Select a grade level
    • Grade 10
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Social Studies 10 -Canada and the World: 1914 to the Present: Historical and contemporary injustices challenge the narrative and identity of Canada as an inclusive, multicultural society
    • Grade 11
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • Explorations in Social Studies 11: Indigenous peoples are reclaiming mental, emotional, physical, and spiritual well-being despite the continuing effects of colonialism
        • Explorations in Social Studies 11: Social justice initiatives can transform individuals and systems
    • Grade 12
      • Step 3Select a subject
      • Social Studies
        • Step 4Relevant matches
        • B.C. First Peoples: The impact of contact and colonialism continues to affect the political, social, and economic lives of B.C. First Peoples
        • Contemporary Indigenous Studies: Indigenous peoples are reclaiming mental, emotional, physical, and spiritual well-being despite the continuing effects of colonialism
        • Contemporary Indigenous Studies: Reconciliation requires all colonial societies to work together to foster healing and address injustices
        • Social Justice: Individual worldviews shape and inform our understanding of social justice issues.
        • Social Justice: Social justice initiatives can transform individuals and systems
        • Social Justice: Social justice issues are interconnected.
        • Social Justice: The causes of social injustice are complex and have lasting impacts on society

Themes Addressed

  • Citizenship (1)

    • Community-Building and Participation
  • Human Rights (2)

    • Cultural Diversity
    • Social Justice

Sustainability Education Principles

Principle Rating Explanation
Consideration of Alternative Perspectives Very Good

Throughout the resource the students are encouraged to consider the information gathered and various points of view in order to engage in meaningful and constructive discussions that lead to an informed position.

Consideration of Alternative Perspectives:
  • Satisfactory: absence of bias towards any one point of view
  • Good: students consider different points of view regarding issues, problems discussed
  • Very good: based on the consideration of different views, students form opinions and  take an informed position
Multiple Dimensions of Problems & Solutions Good

The topic of the resource is of a social nature.  The teacher could try to support the resource with additional information of an economic nature.  The environmental dimension does not quite fit with the topic,

Multiple Dimensions of Problems & Solutions:

Effectively addresses the environmental, economic and social dimensions of the issue(s) being explored.

  • Satisfactory: resource supports the examination of  these dimensions
  • Good:  resource explicitly examines the interplay of these dimensions
  • Very Good:  a systems-thinking approach is encouraged to examine these three dimensions
Respects Complexity Very Good

Through the additional materials provided as well as the suggestions made for the teachers as they move through the resource, the complexity of the issue is addressed and treated respectfully.

Respects Complexity:

The complexity of the problems/issues being discussed is respected.

Acting on Learning Very Good

One of the final activities is for the students to commit to personal and group actions that support meaningful reconciliation. 

Acting on Learning:

Learning moves from understanding  issues  to working towards positive change — in personal lifestyle, in school, in the community,  or for the planet

  • Satisfactory: action opportunities are included as extensions 
  • Good: action opportunities are core components of the resource
  • Very Good: action opportunities for students are well supported and intended to result in observable, positive change
Values Education Very Good

The students work throughout the resource to develop and identify their own beliefs on the issue.

Values Education:

Students are explicitly provided with opportunities to identify, clarify and express their own beliefs/values.

Empathy & Respect for Humans Very Good
Empathy & Respect for Humans: Empathy and respect are fostered for diverse groups of humans (including different genders, ethnic groups, sexual preferences, etc.).
Personal Affinity with Earth Poor/Not considered

This is not a focus of this resource.

Personal Affinity with Earth:

Encourages a personal affinity with -the natural world.  

  • Satisfactory: connection is made to the natural world
  • Good: fosters appreciation/concern for the natural world
  • Very Good: fosters stewardship though practical and respectful experiences out-of-doors 
Locally-Focused Learning Very Good
Locally-Focused Learning:

Includes learning experiences that take advantage of issues/elements within the local community. 

  • Satisfactory: learning is made relevant to the lives of the learners
  • Good: learning is made relevant and has a local focus
  • Very Good: learning is made relevant, local and takes place ‘outside’ , in the community 
Past, Present & Future Very Good

The students, through various exercises, examine via critical thinking what led Canada to this point and how to move forward toward meaningful reconciliation.

Past, Present & Future: Promotes an understanding of the past, a sense of the present, and a positive vision for the future.

Pedagogical Approaches

Principle Rating Explanation
Open-Ended Instruction Very Good

The resource provides the students with thoughtful exercises that are open ended.

Open-Ended Instruction :

Lessons are structured so that multiple/complex answers are possible; students are not steered toward one 'right' answer.

Integrated Learning Good
  • English Language Arts
  • Social Studies
  • Indigenous Studies
  • History
Integrated Learning:

Learning brings together content and skills  from more than one  subject area

  • Satisfactory: content from a number of different  subject areas is readily identifiable
  • Good:  resource is appropriate for use in more than one subject area
  • Very Good:  the lines between subjects are blurred 
Inquiry Learning Good
Inquiry Learning:

Learning is directed by questions, problems, or challenges that students work to address.   

  • Satisfactory: Students are provided with questions/problems to solve and some direction on how to arrive at solutions.
  • Good: students, assisted by the teacher clarify the question(s) to ask and the process to follow to arrive at solutions.  Sometimes referred to as Guided Inquiry
  • Very Good:  students generate the questions and assume much of the responsibility for how to solve them.  . Sometimes referred to as self-directed learning.

 

Differentiated Instruction Good

There are no suggestions for learners with difficulties.

Differentiated Instruction:

Activities address a range of student learning styles, abilities and readiness.

  • Satisfactory:  includes a variety of instructional approaches
  • Good: addresses  the needs of visual, auditory &  kinesthetic learners
  • Very Good: also includes strategies for learners with difficulties
Experiential Learning Good
Experiential Learning:

Authentic learning experiences are provided

  • Satisfactory: learning takes place through ‘hands-on’ experience or simulation
  • Good: learning involves direct experience in a ‘real world context’
  • Very good: learning involves ‘real world experiences’ taking place’ beyond the school walls.
Cooperative Learning Satisfactory
Cooperative Learning:

Group and cooperative learning strategies are a priority.

  • Satisfactory:  students work in groups
  • Good: cooperative learning skills are explicitly taught and practiced
  • Very Good: cooperative learning skills are explicitly taught, practiced and assessed
Assessment & Evaluation Very Good
Assessment & Evaluation: Tools are provided that help students and teachers to capture formative and summative information about students' learning and performance. These tools may include reflection questions, checklists, rubrics, etc.
Peer Teaching Satisfactory
Peer Teaching:

Provides opportunities for students to actively present their knowledge and skills to peers and/or act as teachers and mentors.

  • Satisfactory: incidental teaching that arises from cooperative learning, presentations, etc.
  • Good or Very Good: an opportunity is intentionally created to empower students to teach other students/community members. The audience is somehow reliant on the students' teaching (students are not simply ‘presenting')
Case Studies Very Good

As the resource examines the residential schools history in Canada with testimonials from survivors, these can be considered as case studies.

Case Studies:

Relevant case studies are included.  Case studies are thorough descriptions of real events from real situations that students use to explore  concepts in an authentic context.

Locus of Control Good
Locus of Control: Meaningful opportunities are provided for students to choose elements of program content, the medium in which they wish to work, and/or to go deeper into a chosen issue.